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Yemen under the Rasūlids during the 13th Century

An Analysis of the Supply Origin of Court Cooking Ingredients
Tamon Baba

Résumés

Le Yémen sous les Rassoulides (626/1228–858/1454) a été souvent étudié par les chercheurs travaillant sur le commerce de l’océan Indien. Cependant, nous ne connaissons encore que peu les activités économiques sur place en raison du manque de sources historiques suffisantes.
Dans cet article, nous analysons les caractéristiques des régions du Yémen en nous appuyant sur une source historique nouvelle, le Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif fī Nuẓum wa‑Qawānīn wa‑A‘rāf al‑Yaman fī l‑‘Ahd al‑Muẓaffarī al‑Wārif, trouvée dans une bibliothèque privée à Sanaa et éditée par Muḥammad ‘Abd al‑Raḥīm Ğāzim. Son texte livre des informations détaillées sur l’histoire régionale du Yémen durant le règne du Sulṭān al‑Malik al‑Manṣūr ‘Umar (r. 626/1228–647/1249), du Sulṭān al‑Malik al‑Muẓaffar Yūsuf (r. 647/1249–694/1295) et du Sulṭān al‑Malik al‑Ašraf ‘Umar (r. 694/1295–696/1296).
Nous nous concentrons en particulier ici sur l’origine de l’approvisionnement en ingrédients de cuisine pour la cour et mettons en lumière de nouveaux aspects de l’activité économique, tels que les produits en provenance de diverses régions et leur répartition à l’intérieur du Yémen rassoulide, au xiiie siècle.

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Notes de la rédaction

Translated from Japanese into English by the author

Notes de l’auteur

The original paper has already been published as Baba 2011 in Japanese. This paper is the one I touched up and translated into English.

Texte intégral

Introduction

  • 1 As we will show later, there are differences regarding the geographic range between “al‑Yaman” in h (...)

1The Rasūlid era (626/1228–858/1454), which began in southwest Arabia in the early 13th century, was full of glory for over two hundred years. Behind this prosperity is the fact that the Rasūlids were holding Indian Ocean trading ports such as ‘Adan, which produced a huge fiscal revenue, and Yemen,1 which excelled in agricultural productivity.

  • 2 Also see Wada 2008. Yajima has also published the annals of the Rasūlids (see Ta’rī).

2In previous studies, the Rasūlid era have often been referred to in relation to the Indian Ocean trade (Serjeant 1974; al‑Shamrookh 1996; Smith 1996; Margariti 2007). In Japan, as part of the study of Indian Ocean trade history, detailed studies of the Rasūlids have been conducted by H. Yajima and Y. Kuriyama in recent years. Yajima has advocated for the concept of “the Indian Ocean world” based on “the Trade Diaspora” of Philip D. Curtin. His principal aim is to reconstruct the history of various regions from the point of view from the “maritime area,” focusing on human and commercial activities(Yajima 2006).2 Speaking in the context of the Rasūlids, he illustrated the history of south Arabia from the view of the “maritime area” by conducting a bird’s‑eye analysis of the Ḥaḍramawt expedition by Sulṭān al‑Malik al‑Muẓaffar (r. 647/1249–694/1295), the achievements of merchants who were active under the Rasūlids, and the trading of horses between Yemen and the Indian subcontinent. Based on Yajima’s concept, Kuriyama considered the cosmopolitanism of Yemen in “the Indian Ocean world” (Kuriyama 2011). His study focused on customs of ‘Adan under the Rasūlids during the 13th century, foreign relations of the Zaydī Imāms during the 17th century, and the movement of people such as ‘ulamā’ and Ḥaḍramīacross the Yemen region. This book is a state‑of‑the art Japanese study on either Yemeni history.
On the other hand, the social and economic history of Yemen under the Rasūlids has not been researched fully. Therefore, al‑Munda‘ī and D. M. Varisco have studied the agricultural activities of Yemen under the Rasūlids(al‑Munda‘ī 1992; Varisco 1994). In addition, al‑Fīfī detailed the administrative history of the Rasūlids(al‑Fīfī 2005). The economic activity on empirical analysis, however, has not been fully elucidated because of the limited number of historical materials.

  • 3 About this book, see also Irtifā‘: p. ğīmād; Vallet 2010: p. 72‑5.

3But this situation has changed completely since the discovery of new historical materials in recent years. In particular, two administrative document collections, Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif fī Nuẓum wa‑Qawānīn wa‑A‘rāf al‑Yaman fīl‑‘Ahd al‑Muẓaffarī al‑Wārif and Irtifā‘ al‑Dawla al‑Mu’ayyadiyya,3 which were revised by Muḥammad ‘Abd al‑Raḥīm Ğāzim, have contributed to the development of research on the social and economic history of the Rasūlids. E. Vallet comprehensively used various historical materials, including these new documents, and conducted an in‑depth analysis about the commercial activities under the Rasūlids in his book L’Arabie marchande. Starting from the detailed study of the Rasūlid historical materials corpus, he examined Indian Ocean trade, intraregional trade in Yemen and its relation to the sovereignty of the Rasūlid Sulṭān, as well as the details of maritime trade. Vallet’s discussion, which thoroughly examined the previous studies, is a culmination of the Rasūlid research at the current stage.

4Vallet studied the economic situation of Yemen under the Rasūlids in the fifth chapter of his book (Vallet 2010: p. 297‑379). In the section entitled “The Network of Sulṭān (Les réseaux du sultan),”he mentions the network of the products that were supplied to the Sulṭān of Ta‘izz and the network of madder. This shows an overview of intraregional trade in Yemen based on several articles in Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif. But when considering this subject, we need to read the diversified historical records about the ingredients supplied to the Sulṭān and understandYemen during the 13th century onthe empirical research.

5In this paper, we intend to clarify the economic activities under the Rasūlids during the 13th century by analyzing the diversity of the various cooking ingredients supplied to the Rasūlid court and the characteristics of their supply origins, based on Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif which includes the records referred to the court cooking ingredients supplied. First, we extract the details of various types of food from the historical materials referring to the food supplied to the court and analyze this information after classifying itaccording to supply origin, number of items, and supply destination. Next, we divide the supply origin into four regions and examine its geographical situation and the details of the food supplied. Through these analyses focused on “the cooking ingredients supplied to the court,” Yemen under the Rasūlids during the 13th century is drawn in more precise detail than ever before.

I. About Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif and table “Supplied products to the Rasūlid court”

1. Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif and the records referred to the court cooking ingredients supplied

  • 4 See also Nūr I: alifzāy; Nūr II: alifā’; Vallet 2010: p. 702; Baba 2013.

6Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif, which was published in 2003 and 2005, is historical material compiled based on the administrative documents of the reigns of Sulṭān al‑Malik al‑Manṣūr ‘Umar (r. 626/1228–647/1249), Sulṭān al‑Malik al‑Muẓaffar Yūsuf (r. 647/1249–694/1295), and Sulṭān al‑Malik al‑Ašraf ‘Umar (r. 694/1295–696/1296).4 In this literature, there are about 60 articles related to the cooking ingredients sent to the home of the royal family and the kitchen of the Sulṭān (Nūr I: p. 127, 393, 407‑8, 525‑59, 571‑81; Nūr II: p. 1‑24, 70‑101, 119‑150). We propose an analysis based mainly on these records.

7Because Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif consists of copies of the various documents, such as the proclamation (marsūm), procurement request (istid‘ā’, mustad‘ā’), and allowance (rātib) documents, there are differences in their format. But in general, these documents appear as follows: underline and colon, followed by an enclosed figure in quoted text, which I attached for convenience.

  • 5 Ǧiha indicates the female of family of amīr and royalty (cf. Nūr I: p. 525 note 3817; Sim: p. 358; (...)

Princess (ğiha5) under the tutelage of eunuch (al‑ṭawāšī) ‘Azīz al‑Dawla Rayḥān

al‑Luqmānī at al‑Dumluwa A

(…)
Allowance of family (al‑‘iyāl), chamberlain (al‑ḫuddām), the eunuch B
Miḫlāf: Arabic wheat…7,110 zabadī
Zabīd: 11 types ‑ tamarind (ḥumar)…195 raṭl, pomegranate…300 raṭl C(…) (Nūr I: p. 529‑31)

8This is the article about the payment of allowances to the female relatives of the court. From the underlined words in A, it is possible to determine the place and name of her residence, i.e., the supply destination. The underlined words in B describe the application and breakdown of supply items. The underlined words in C are the names of supply items, supply origins, and quantities.

2. Table “Supplied products to the Rasūlid court”

9When we organize the article cited in the previous section, it is possible to read the information as follows: “supply origin: Miḫlāf, supply item: Arabic wheat, supply destination: al‑Dumluwa,” “supply origin: Zabīd, supply item: tamarind (ḥumar), supply destination: al‑Dumluwa”and “supply origin: Zabīd, supply item: pomegranate, supply destination:al‑Dumluwa.”

  • 6  In these records, there are some articles referred to tar and feed that were used in the stable. B (...)
  • 7  About the place name, for example, I deemed both the “Ta‘izz” and “al‑A‘māl al‑Ta‘izziyya” as refe (...)

10In this way, we extracted cooking ingredients and tools for which we can see the place of the supply origin and tabulated the information from Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif in the table “Supplied products to the Rasūlid court.”6 This table consists of five rows. On the left, each row means “supply origin,”7 “group(Egg/Daily products, Cereals, Meats, Pulse, Vegetables, Fruits, Dried fruits, Fragrance/Spices, Oils/Fats, Seasonings, Sweets, Others (foods), Cooking, Sundries and Tools),” “ingredients,” “supply destination,” and “source.” If we count items that include “supply origin,” “ingredient,” and “supply destination” as one, the total number of items is 445. In the next section, we perform an analysis focused on the supply origin and supply destination on the basis of this table.

Table. Supplied products to the Rasūlid court

Supply origin

Group

Name of ingredient

Destination

Source

Zabīd

Egg/Dairy products

curd(qanbarīs)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

Ğibla

I: 533

Ta‘izz

I: 571

Cereals

sesame(ğulğlān)

unknown

II: 7, 12

Fruits

pomegranate (ḥabb rummān)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 533

unknown

I: 552*1; II: 6, 12, 70

Ta‘izz

I: 571

‘Adan via Ta‘izz

II: 19

Dried fruits

ṯildate (tamr: ṯi’l)

unknown

II: 6, 7, 12

‘Adan via Ta‘izz

II: 19

tamarind(ḥumar)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 533

Ta‘izz

I: 571

unknown

II: 6, 12

Fragrances/

Spices

ginger(zanğabīl)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 533

Oil/Fats

sesame oil(salīṭ)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

Ğibla

I: 533

Ta‘izz

I: 571

unknown

II: 6, 7, 12, 70

‘Adan via Ta‘izz

II: 19

clarified butter(samn)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

Ğibla

I: 533

unknown

I: 552*1; II: 6, 7, 12, 71

Ta‘izz

I: 571

‘Adan via Ta‘izz

II: 19

ṭaḥīna

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 533

unknown

II: 6, 7, 12

‘Adan via Ta‘izz

II: 19

Others(foods)

starch(našā)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

unknown

I: 552*1; II: 6, 7, 12

Ta‘izz

I: 571

‘Adan via Ta‘izz

II: 19

Cooking

kušk

unknown

I: 552*1;II: 6, 12

‘Adan via Ta‘izz

II: 19

Sundries

soap(ṣābūn)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 533

unknown

I: 552*1

Tools(ceramics and porcelain)

dish(ṣaḥn)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 533

unknown

II: 7, 12

‘Adan via Ta‘izz

II: 19

zabādī

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 533

unknown

I: 552*1; II: 7, 12

‘Adan via Ta‘izz

II: 19

kīzān

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 533

sukruğa

unknown

I: 552*1

Tools(date palm)

ḫidr

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

unknown

I: 552*1;II: 7, 12

‘Adan via Ta‘izz

II: 19

ağab

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 533

unknown

I: 552*1; II: 7, 12

‘Adan via Ta‘izz

II: 19

mansaf

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 533

unknown

I: 552*1;II: 7, 12

manḫur

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

Ğibla

I: 533

unknown

I: 552*1;II: 7, 12

maṣāfī

unknown

I: 552*1; II: 7, 12

mahğan

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

unknown

I: 552*1

ġirbāl

Ğibla

I: 533

Tools(date palm etc.)

makabba

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

Ğibla

I: 533

unknown

I: 552*1; II: 7

‘Adan via Ta‘izz

II: 19

ḥurr idam

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Tools(rope)

aḥmāl salab

unknown

II: 7

‘Adan via Ta‘izz

II: 19

ḥuğaz salab

unknown

I: 552*1;II: 7

‘Adan via Ta‘izz

II: 19

šūbāndāt

‘Adan via Ta‘izz

II: 19

Tools(timber)

qirma

unknown

II: 7

unknown

II: 7

lūkurdāt

‘Adan via Ta‘izz

II: 19

mašrab

unknown

II: 7

‘Adan via Ta‘izz

II: 19

qaṣ‘a

unknown

I: 552*1;II: 7

‘Adan via Ta‘izz

II: 19

Tools(others)

baṭṭa

unknown

II: 7

‘Adan via Ta‘izz

II: 19

sufra

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

unknown

I: 552*1; II: 7

manẓaf

unknown

I: 552*1

ġirāra

unknown

I: 552*1

Rima‘

Meats

arabīya sheep(ġanam: ‘arabīya)

unknown

II: 82‑83

goat(mā‘iz)

unknown

II: 82

al‑Ḏu’āl

Fruits

pomegranate (ḥabb rummān)

unknown

II: 7

Dried fruits

tamarind(ḥumar)

unknown

II: 7

al‑Kadrā’

Oil/Fats

clarified butter(samn)

al‑Dumluwa

I: 127

Zabīd

I: 127

al‑Mahğam

Fruits

pomegranate (ḥabb rummān)

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542

Dried fruits

date(tamr)

unknown

I: 552*1

makkī date(tamr: makkī)

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542, 547

tamarind(ḥumar)

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542, 548

unknown

I: 552*1

Fragrances/Spices

ginger(zanğabīl)

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542, 548

unknown

I: 552*1

Sweets

honey(‘asal)

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542

unknown

I: 552*1

Oil/Fats

sesame oil(salīṭ)

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 541, 547

unknown

I: 552*1

clarified butter(samn)

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542, 547

ṭaḥīna

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542, 547

unknown

I: 552*1

Others(foods)

starch(našā)

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 547

Cooking

kušk

unknown

I: 547‑8

Sundries

soap(ṣābūn)

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542, 548

Tools(ceramics and porcelain)

kīzān

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542, 548

Tools(timber)

qaṣ‘a

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542

Tools (date palm)

ḫidr

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542, 548

ağab

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542, 548

mansaf

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 548

manḫur

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542, 548

maṣāfī

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542

mahğan

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542, 548

Tools(date palm etc.)

makabba

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542, 548

ḥurr idam

unknown

I: 548

Tools(rope)

ḥuğaz salab

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 548

‘idl

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542

šūbāndāt

 al‑Ta‘kar

 I: 548

Tools(glass)

balaḫīya

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542

Tools(others)

manẓaf

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542, 548

Ta‘izz

Meats

sheep(ġanam)

al‑Ğanad?

II: 3

cow(baqar)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 528*5

camel(ibil)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 528*5

Cereals

wheat(burr)

unknown

II: 71

quṣaybī wheat(burr: quṣaybī)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527, 528

Sweets

honey(‘asal)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 528

usqī honey(‘asal: ‘usqī)

unknown

II: 5*2, 6, 12

al‑Quṣayba

Cereals

bayḍā’sorghum(ḏura: bayḍā’)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527*5

al‑Sawā

Meats

arabīya goat(ġanam: ‘arabīya)

unknown

II: 82

Ğibla

Sweets

white sugar(sukkar: abyaḍ)

al‑Dumluwa

I: 531

Ta‘izz

I: 571

unknown

II: 5, 6, 12, 70

red sugar(sukkar: aḥmar)

Ta‘izz

I: 571

qiṭāra

unknown

II: 5, 6, 70

al‑Ğanad

Meats

sheep(ġanam)

al‑Ğanad?

II: 3

‘Adan

II: 18

arabīya sheep(ġanam: ‘arabīya)

unknown

II: 83

goat(mā‘iz)

unknown

II: 83

Fragrances/Spices

coriander(kazbara)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 528

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 532

unknown

II: 6

‘Adan

II: 18

safflower(‘uṣfur)

unknown

II: 6

‘Adan

II: 18

seed of safflower(qurṭum)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 528

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 532

unknown

II: 6

‘Adan

II: 18

mustard(ḫardal)

unknown

II: 6

‘Adan

II: 18

Sundries

candle(šam‘)

‘Adan

II: 18, 71

lantern(fawānīs)

‘Adan

II: 71

Tools(ceramics and porcelain)

zabādī

unknown

II: 6

‘Adan

II: 18

Miḫlāf Ğa‘far

Meats

sheep(ġanam)

‘Adan

II: 18

arabīya sheep(ġanam: ‘arabīya)

unknown

II: 83

goat(mā‘iz)

unknown

II: 83

chicken(dağāğ)

Ta‘izz

II: 15, 16

Egg/Dairy products

egg(bayḍ)

Ta‘izz

II: 15, 16

Cereals

ḥalbā wheat(burr: ḥalbā)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 526

unknown

II: 7

‘Adan

II: 19

arabī wheat(burr: ‘arabī)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 526

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ta‘izz

II: 15, 16

‘Adan

II: 19

wasanī wheat(burr: wasanī)

Ğibla

I: 532

Ta‘izz

II: 15, 16

‘Adan

II: 19

sorghum(ḏura)

Ta‘izz

I: 571

Pulse

lentils(‘adas)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 526

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 532

unknown

I: 552*3; II: 7

‘Adan

II: 19

Vegetables

garlic(ṯawm)

‘Adan

II: 19

Dried fruits

walnut(ḏawz)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 526

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 532

unknown

I: 552; II: 7

almonds(lawz)

unknown

I: 552*3

Fragrances/

Spices

seed of safflower(qurṭum)

unknown

I: 552*3

poppy(ḫišḫāš)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 526

Ğibla

I: 532

unknown

I: 552*3;II: 7

‘Adan

II: 19

Seasonings

vinegar(ḫall)

unknown

I: 552

Sweets

honey(‘asal)

Ğibla

I: 532, 533

unknown

I: 552*3

white sugar(sukkar: abyaḍ)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 526, 528

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 532, 533

unknown

I: 552

red sugar(sukkar: aḥmar)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 526

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 532

muṣaffā sugar(sukkar: muṣaffā)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 526

qiṭāra

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 526

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 532

unknown

I: 552

Oil/Fats

clarified butter(samn)

unknown

II: 7

Cooking

sausage(suğāq)

unknown

I: 551*4

Tools(timber)

qaṣ‘a

unknown

I: 552*4

Tools(others)

šimāl

‘Adan

II: 19

al‑Dumluwa

Meats

goat(ġanam)

‘Adan

II: 18

Cereals

wheat(burr)

al‑Dumluwa

I: 531

bayḍā’ sorghum(ḏura: bayḍā’)

al‑Dumluwa

I: 531

Seasonings

vinegar of wine(ḫall ḫamr)

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530*5

Dried fruits

honey(‘asal)

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530, 531

‘Adan

II: 18

Oil/Fats

sesame oil(salīṭ)

al‑Dumluwa

I: 531

al‑Ḏubḥān

Meats

sheep(ġanam)

‘Adan

II: 18

al‑Mafālīs

Meats

sheep(ġanam)

‘Adan

II: 18

arabīya sheep(ġanam: ‘arabīya)

unknown

II: 83

goat(mā‘iz)

unknown

II: 83

Tools(stone)

ḥaraḍa

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 528

qadr

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 528

maqlā

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 528

‘Adan

Meats

barābir sheep(ġanam: barābir)

unknown

II: 83

chicken(dağāğ)

‘Adan

II: 19

dove(ḥamām)

‘Adan

II: 19

Egg/Dairy products

egg(bayḍ)

‘Adan

II: 19

curd(qanbarīs)

‘Adan

II: 20

mixed milk(qaṭīb)

‘Adan

II: 20

milk(ḥalab)

‘Adan

II: 20

Cereals

wheat(burr)

‘Adan

II: 19

rice(urz)

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542

Ta‘izz

I: 571

unknown

II: 5

ḫarağī rice(urz: ḫarağī)

unknown

II: 6

‘Adan

II: 6, 19

burūğī rice(urz: burūğī)

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

unknown

II: 70

hindī rice(urz: hindī)

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 548

unknown

I: 551*4, 557

tāī rice(urz: tānšī)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

Ğibla

I: 532

Pulse

black caraway(ḥabba sawḍā’)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 532

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543, 548

unknown

I: 551*4, 558; II: 6

chickpea(ḥummuṣ)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 532

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542

unknown

I: 551*4, 558

Ta‘izz

I: 571

Vegetables

garlic(ṯawm)

‘Adan

II: 20

eggplant(bāḏinğān)

‘Adan

II: 20

chard and vegetables(silq wa ḫuḍra)

‘Adan

II: 20

cucumber(qiṯā’)

‘Adan

II: 20

onion(baṣal)

‘Adan

II: 20

Dried fruits

pomegranate (ḥabb rummān)

‘Adan

II: 19

lemon(līm)

‘Adan

II: 20

banana(mawz)

‘Adan

II: 20

date(tamr)

Ta‘izz

I: 571

‘Adan

II: 19

farḍ date(tamr: farḍ)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

unknown

II: 5, 6

tamarind(ṯamara)

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543, 548

unknown

I: 552*4

‘Adan

II: 19

hazel nuts(bunduq)

unknown

I: 551*4

Ta‘izz

I: 571

pistachio(fustuq)

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543

unknown

I: 551*4

Ta‘izz

I: 571

Fragrances/

Spices

coriander(kazbara)

‘Adan

II: 20

poppy(ḫišḫāš)

‘Adan

II: 19

caraway(karāwayā)

unknown

II: 5, 6

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543

unknown

I: 551*4

fennel(šamār)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543, 548

unknown

I: 551*4; II: 6

fennel(bisbāsa)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

Ğibla

I: 533

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543, 548

unknown

I: 552*4; II: 6

šuqr

‘Adan

II: 20

seed of fenugreek(bizar ḥulba)

‘Adan

II: 20

pepper(filfil)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 532

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542, 548

unknown

I: 551*4, 558; II: 6

Ta‘izz

I: 571

‘Adan

II: 19

cumin(kammūn)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 532

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 548

unknown

I: 551*4, 558; II: 5, 6

Ta‘izz

I: 571

‘Adan

II: 19

miṣrī cumin(kammūn: miṣrī)

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543

cinnamon(qirfa)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 532

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543, 548

unknown

I: 551*4, 558; II: 5, 6

Ta‘izz

I: 571

‘Adan

II: 19

leaf of cinnamon(waraq)

unknown

I: 551*4

mixed spices(aṭrāf ṭīb)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 532

Ta‘izz

I: 571

unknown

II: 5, 6

mastic(muṣṭakā)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 532

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543, 548

unknown

I: 551*4, 558; II: 5, 6

‘Adan

II: 20

saffron(ẓa‘farān)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

Ğibla

I: 532

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 542, 548

unknown

I: 551*4, 558

Ta‘izz

I: 571

‘Adan

II: 19

nard(sunbul)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 533

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543, 548

unknown

I: 552*4; II: 6

clove(qurunful)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 533

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543, 548

unknown

I: 552*4; II: 6

leaf of qumārī oud(waraq qumārī)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 532

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543, 548

unknown

I: 558; II: 6

anise(yansūn)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

cardamon (hāl, hayl)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 533

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543, 548

unknown

I: 551*4; II: 6

summāq

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 532

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543

Ta‘izz

I: 571

basil(rayḥān)

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

aloe(ṣabir)

Ta‘izz

I: 571

nutmeg(ğawzā’)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 533

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 548

Seasonings

salt(milḥ)

‘Adan

II: 20

vinegar(ḫall)

‘Adan

II: 20

murrī

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543

unknown

I: 551*4

Sweets

honey(‘asal)

‘Adan

II: 19

maqdišī sugar(sukkar: maqdišī)

‘Adan

II: 19

qiṭāra

‘Adan

II: 19

Oil/Fats

sesame oil(salīṭ)

‘Adan

II: 19

clarified butter(samn)

Ğibla

I: 532

‘Adan

II: 19

miṣrī clarified butter(samn: miṣrī)

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

ṭaḥīna

‘Adan

II: 19

fat(wadak)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

Ğibla

I: 532

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543, 548

unknown

I: 551*4; II: 5, 6

Ta‘izz

I: 571

oil(zayt)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Ğibla

I: 532

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543, 548

unknown

I: 551*4; II: 5, 6

Ta‘izz

I: 571

Others(foods)

starch(našā)

‘Adan

II: 19

starch from rice(našā urz)

unknown

II: 5

Cooking

ḫamīr

‘Adan

II: 20

Sundries

soap(ṣābūn)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

candle(šam‘)

unknown

I: 558

ammonium chloride stone(nušādir)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543, 548

unknown

I: 552*4

antimony(rāsiḫt)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543, 548

unknown

I: 552*4

gallic(‘afṣ)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543, 548

unknown

I: 552*4

miṣrī potash(ušnān: miṣrī)

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543, 548

unknown

I: 551*4, 558

civet(zabād)

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543, 548

unknown

I: 552*4

frankincense(lubān)

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 543, 548

unknown

I: 552*4

Tools(ceramics and porcelain)

dish(ṣaḥn)

Ta‘izz

I: 571

zabādī

‘Adan

II: 20

dawḥ

‘Adan

II: 20

qaṣrīya

‘Adan

II: 20

mirkan

‘Adan

II: 20

ğarra

‘Adan

II: 20

maṭāhir

‘Adan

II: 20

Tools(date palm etc.)

ṭarbada

‘Adan

II: 20

quṣūr

‘Adan

II: 20

ağab

‘Adan

II: 20

Tools(rope)

qinbāl

al‑Ta‘kar

I: 548

Tools(others)

linen(ṯiyāb ḫām)

unknown

II: 5

tin(qiṣdīr)

unknown

II: 5

needle(sina qanā)

unknown

II: 6

weight(awzān ḥadīd)

unknown

II: 6

firewood(ḥaṭab)

‘Adan

II: 20

sufra

al‑Mafālīs?

I: 527

Laḥğ

Oil/Fats

sesame oil(salīṭ)

al‑Dumluwa

I: 530

Northern mountainous area (Bilād al‑‘Ulyā)

Meats

sheep(ğanam)

unknown

I: 580

○ Each “I: ”and “II:”in the column “Source” means “Nūr I: p.” and “Nūr II: p.”.

○The products from *1 to 4 in the column “Source” have two supply origins at the same time in the text. In this table, based on the descriptions of others, we classified them in the column “Supply origin.” The details are below:

*1: Al‑Mahğam and Zabīd are adscript as supply origin.
*2: Al‑Dumluwa and Ta‘izz are adscript as supply origin.
*3: Miḫlāf Ğa‘far and Ta‘izz are adscript as supply origin.
*4: Miḫlāf Ğa‘far and ‘Adan are adscript as supply origin.

*5 In the column “Source” means that its products do not have supply origin information, so we relied on the descriptions of others to determine this.

  • 8 The catalogues of taxable goods in ‘Adan in this paper means following three materials: Nūr I: p. 4 (...)
  • 9 For example, in the article where the supply origin of vegetables is stated, both the supply origin (...)

11Cooking ingredients in this table are only a portion of the described foods written in Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif. There are additional ingredients that do not have their supply origins stated in Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif. In addition to most of the šuqr, mint (na‘na‘), kāḏī, seed of fenugreek (bizar ḥulba), various types of spices, vegetables, egg/dairy products, fruits, and seasonings have no information about their supply origin. Though we can guess that these products have been acquired through Indian Ocean trade if written in the catalogues of taxable goods in ‘Adan,8 there is no information in these records. As described above, these documents are mainly composed of the proclamation document or procurement request document to the distant areas, and the records of the products that were actually acquired. Therefore, if they were able to get a product in the vicinity of the supply destination without ordering it from a distant place, such a product is unlikely to be listed in the source.9

II. Quantitative Research

1. Supply Origin

  • 10 It should be noted that al‑usaynī (d. 9/15 C.) divided the various regions under the Rasūlids into (...)

12When we extract the place name of the supply origin from this table, the total number climbs to 17. It is possible to divide these supply origins broadly into four locations as follows.10

Tihāma: Zabīd, Rima‘, Ḏu’āl, al‑Kadrā’, al‑Mahğam
Southern mountainous area: Ta‘izz, al‑Quṣayba, al‑Sawā, Ğibla, Miḫlāf Ğa‘far,
Ğanad, al‑Dumluwa, al‑Ḏubhān, al‑Mafālīs
‘Adan: ‘Adan, Laḥj
Northern mountainous area (Bilād al‑‘Ulyā)

13Various places in Yemen are shown as supply origins here. Although place names in the southern mountain area are more common in particular, the northern mountainous area is not mentioned so much. In the following, we perform the analysis using the two figures in order to see the supply origin trend, dealing with the “Supply origin” and the “Number of products per supply origin.”

Map: Yemen region (7/13 C.) based on [Cornu 1985: Carte VIII. Circonscription du Yémen ; Vallet 2010 : p. 744]

Map: Yemen region (7/13 C.) based on [Cornu 1985: Carte VIII. Circonscription du Yémen ; Vallet 2010 : p. 744]

Figure 1. Supply origin

Supply origin

Number of items

Percentages

1. Zabīd

103

23.1

2. Rima‘

2

0.4

3. Al‑Ḏu’āl

2

0.4

4. Al‑Kadrā‘

2

0.4

5. Al‑Mahğam

32

7.2

6. Ta‘izz

7

1.6

7. Al‑Quṣayba

1

0.2

8. Al‑Sawā

1

0.2

9. Ğibla

5

1.1

10. Ğanad

22

4.9

11. Miḫlāf Ğa‘far

51

11.5

12. Al‑Dumluwa

7

1.6

13. Al‑Ḏubhān

1

0.2

14. Al‑Mafālīs

6

1.3

15. ‘Adan

201

45.2

16. Laḥj

1

0.2

17. Bilād al‑‘Ulyā

1

0.2

Total

445

100

14First, Figure 1 shows the source origin percentages in the table. From the figure, we found that Zabīd, ‘Adan, and Miḫlāf Ğa‘far are frequently recorded as the supply origin. Only ‘Adan accounts for about half of the whole (45.2%), and if combined with Zabīd (23.1%) and Miḫlāf Ğa‘far (11.5%), the rate reaches as high as 80%. Given that there are discrepancies in the amount of information in each article, we cannot describe the origins categorically, but it can be seen that these areas were working as cooking ingredients supply origins for the Rasūlid court.

Figure 2. Number of products per supply origin

Supply origin

Number of products

1. Zabīd

36

2. Rima‘

2

3. Ḏu’āl

2

4. Al‑Kadrā‘

1

5. Al‑Mahğam

27

6. Ta‘izz

7

7. Al‑Quṣayba

1

8. Al‑Sawā

1

9. Ğibla

3

10. Ğanad

10

11. Miḫlāf Ğa‘far

25

12. Al‑Dumluwa

6

13. Al‑Ḏubhān

1

14. Al‑Mafālīs

6

15. ‘Adan

93

16. Laḥj

1

17. Bilād al‑‘Ulyā

1

15Figure 2 shows a number of the types of items each supply origin supplied to the court. As the number of items from ‘Adan overwhelmed others (93 items), we are able to appreciate that a variety of products had been integrated there. Looking at the breakdown, spices (24 items) that were mostly brought through Indian Ocean trade are the majority. Then to ‘Adan, a variety of items have been supplied to the court from Zabīd (36 items), al‑Mahğam (27 items), and Miḫlāf Ğa‘far (25 items). Many kitchen tools were carried from Zabīd in particular (24 items); they were produced actively around Zabīd.

16Through the above analyses, it is clear that Zabīd and ‘Adan were functioning as distribution centers to supply a wide variety of products to the Rasūlid court.

2. Supply destination

Figure 3. Destination

Supply origin

Number of items

Percentages

1. Unknown

113

25.4

2. Zabīd

1

0.2

3. Ta‘izz

28

6.3

4. Al‑Ta‘kar

55

12.4

5. Al‑Dumluwa

51

11.5

6. Ğibla

45

10.1

7. Ğanad

2

0.4

8. Al‑Mafālīs

64

14.4

9. ‘Adan

86

19.3

total

445

100

  • 11 In the table, there are 86 items listing ‘Adan as the supply destination. More specifically, 67 wer (...)
  • 12 For example, see (Nūr II: p. 934). This is the article that al‑Malik al‑Wāiq Ibrāhīm (d. 711/1311 (...)

17In this section, let us consider the supply destination trend. Figure 3 shows the supply destination percentages listed in the table.11 In comparison with the supply origin results, place names appearing in sources as supply destinations are limited. However, it is likely that cooking ingredients were supplied to areas that are not recorded in the archives. Though there is only one item in the table that has Zabīd as a supply destination, we know the Sulṭān frequently visited Zabīd,12 and we should understand that various foods were supplied there in practice.

18In addition, the items with an unknown supply destination are the majority (25.4%). This is because there are articles lacking information on supply destinations in Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif. But we can guess most of them were likely to be going to Ta‘izz for the following three reasons.

  1. Sulṭān al‑Malik al‑Muẓaffar spent most of his life in Ta‘izz, particularly Ṯa‘bāt in the suburbs (Smith 1974: p. 121). The Rasūlid Sulṭān constructed a house and garden there and enjoyed a life of leisure (Masālik 1: p. 160; Nūr I: p. 186 note 1445).

  2. As a supply origin, the southern mountainous area is mentioned in Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif in detail. In order for the Sulṭan to eat fresh ingredients, it would have been necessary to retrieve food from the vicinity of his location. Therefore, the fact that places near Ta‘izz are named means its principal supply destination is a home ground of the Sulṭān.

    • 13 See also Nūr I: p. 1867, 265, 26770, 2889, 33640, 349, 356, 358; Serjeant 1963: p. 13856; Vari (...)

    There are many articles about weights and measures derived from Ta‘izz (raṭl al‑Ta‘izzī, mudd al‑Ta‘izzī) in Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif (Nūr I: p. 105, 189, 268, 304, 310‑11, 340‑3, 368, 377, 398, 526‑9, 540‑1; Nūr II: p. 19‑20, 92‑3, 102‑4, 107, 110‑3). Various common weights and measures were used under the Rasūlid era, while weights and measures for each region or city were used independently.13 The fact that weights and measures from Ta‘izz appear in Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif many times shows that Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif tends to show detail the evidence of commercial activity in Ta‘izz.

III. The Supply Origin of Court Ingredients

1. Tihāma

19Tihāma is a coastal desert region of about 30–60km (48–160 miles) wide in the Red Sea Coast of southwest Arabia. The temperature goes up to 45°C and the relative humidity reaches 70–90% in the summer. This is a fertile agricultural area with several wadis in which flood water runs down from the mountains westward (EI2 X: p. 481‑2 (TIHĀMA)). Although ‘Adan is located on the east side of Bāb al‑Mandab, which connects the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, may also be included in this Tihāma (Hamdānī I: p. 53‑4; Mulaḫḫaṣ: 16b; al‑Ḥağarī 1984 I: p. 156‑62), we describe ‘Adan separately in this paper.

  • 14 Along with the development of Zabīd and Ta‘izz under the Rasūlids, the Makka pilgrimage road, which (...)

20Zabīd appears frequently in the archives as a supply origin for the Rasūlid court. This city was prosperous under the Rasūlids as the Sulṭān’s home ground, particularly in the reigning period of Sulṭān al‑Malik al‑Muğāhid ‘Alī (r. 721/1321–744/1343) (Masālik 1: p. 152) and in the starting point of the Makka pilgrimage.14 In addition to the kitchen equipment made of dates and ceramics (Nūr I: p. 54‑5, 350‑3), the cooking ingredients taken to the court from Zabīd include curd, pomegranate, ṯi’l date, tamarind (ḥumar), ginger, honey, sesame oil, and clarified butter. These were the specialties of the Zabīd region. However, these products were not only produced in urban areas of Zabīd, but they were also products of the Zabīd periphery and transported to Zabīd. For example, Rima‘, which is at the north of 1.5 farsaḫ from Zabīd (Muğāwir: p. 63; Mu‘ğam III: p.  78), and Ḏu’āl located 1–2 days’ journey from Zabīd (‘Umāra: p. 77; Muğāwir: p. 62‑3; Mu‘ğam III: p. 9; Bahğa: p. 104) are not often described. This is because the products from these regions were transported to Zabīd and supplied to the court from Zabīd. Various products arrived at the ports of Ġalāfiqa near Zabīd and al‑Ahwāb and would also be collected in Zabīd (Muğāwir: p. 243; Ṣubḥ V: p. 8).

21From the above, it is possible to consider that Zabīd had formed an economic sphere including production areas of various agricultural products and kitchen utensils. Although it is difficult to define the distinct geographical range, products produced in this sphere were integrated into its center, Zabīd. Faššāl (north of Zabīd), Ḥays (at the south, an overnight journey from Zabīd (‘Umāra: p. 16; Mu‘ğam II: p. 380)) and Mawza‘ (south of Ḥays) (‘Umāra: p. 9; Mu‘ğam, II: p. 256), given their location, would be included in the economic sphere concentrating on Zabīd.

  • 15 It should be noted that when it comes to date palms, Makkī dates were only from al‑Mahğam, and i’l(...)
  • 16 Sulān al‑Malik al‑Muaffar held al‑Mahğam as iqā‘ before he assumed the throne (Uqūd I: p. 87). (...)
  • 17 Seafood arriving in the Red Sea Coast was also transported to al‑Mahğam (Muğāwir: p. 91).

22To the north of Zabīd, the road of the Sulṭān (al‑ṭarīq al‑sulṭānī) was running (Simṭ I: p. 250). Al‑Mahğam, located on this road a three‑day journey from Zabīd (‘Umāra: p. 83; Mu‘ğam II: p. 265; Ṣubḥ V: p. 12), is also described in sources as a supply origin for the court. Supply items from al‑Mahğam are similar to those from Zabīd because the production environment of both was similar in Tihāma.15 Sulṭāns had visited al‑Mahğam continually and placed importance on this city (Varisco 1994: p. 306; Vallet 2010: p. 341‑6)16. Its supply destination is unknown, but it may have been al‑Ta‘kar located in the southern mountainous region. However, it is difficult to think that there was a special relationship between al‑Mahğam and al‑Ta‘kar because they were far away from each other. Al‑Maḥālib produced sorghum and sesame, and al‑Kadrā’ cultivated dates and cotton (Afḍal: p. 27; Varisco 1991: p. 8‑9) around al‑Mahğam. The products of these regions were supplied to the court via al‑Mahğam.17

23From the above,it appears that the economic sphere centered on al‑Mahğam existed in the north of Tihāma. As al‑Mahğam was a three‑day journey from Zabīd, this city functioned as a center of the economy in this region.

2. Southern mountainous area

  • 18 Also see note 7.

24On the east side of Tihāma, the al‑Sarāt Mountains traverse the north to southwestern Arabian Peninsula. In the mountains, rainfall occurs, which is rare in the dry Arabian Peninsula, and agriculture has existed since ancient times. As if describing its richness, the periphery of Ta‘izz in particular used to be called “al‑Yaman the Green (al‑Yaman al‑Aḫḍar)”.18 We call the region corresponding to this al‑Yaman al‑Aḫḍar, the southern mountainous area, and analyze it in this paper.

  • 19 Al‑Quayba is a fertile agricultural area located in the north of Ta‘izz. Quaybī wheat is from her (...)
  • 20 The grains produced around Ta‘izz were collected in the granary of citadel Ta‘izz (ahrā’ in Ta‘iz (...)

25Ta‘izz, the homeland of the Rasūlid Sulṭān, is located 1,400 m above sea level. Around Ta‘izz, there were al‑Quṣayba19 and an agricultural region called “Green Field (Ḥayyiz al‑Aḫḍar),” which spread toward al‑Ğūwa (Muğāwir: p. 155‑6; Afḍal: p. 14). It is not hard to imagine that the products produced there were taken to Ta‘izz.20 In the table, there are just seven items supplied from Ta‘izz. As described above, this is related to the fact that Ta‘izz was a supply destination in which the ingredients were gathered from the surrounding areas rather than a supply origin (cf. Vallet 2010: p. 356‑62).

  • 21 Sugar has also been produced in Zabīd and al‑Mahğam (Nūr II: p. 105‑6). However, it was rarely supp (...)
  • 22 According to an article by Ibn al‑Muğāwir, between Ğanad‑Ta‘izz was 1 farsa (Muğāwir: p. 161).

26Ğibla, which is located one day north east of Ta‘izz (Taqwīm: p. 90‑1; Ṣubḥ V: p. 13), supplied white sugar and red sugar. The Sulṭān owned sugar cane plants in Ğibla, and sugar cane produced on the periphery was accumulated and manufactured there (Nūr II: p. 102‑4).21In addition, Ğanad, which is located a half‑day trip north of the Ta‘izz (Taqwīm: p. 91; Muğāwir: p. 90‑1; Mu‘ğam, V: p. 265; Ṣubḥ V: p. 13),22 supplied meats, fragrances/spices, and kitchen tools. In particular, safflower, mustard, and coriander were often supplied from Ğanad, and thus, these three products were considered staples of Ğanad.

  • 23 Milāf is also treated as the name of a city in Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif. For example, in the list of militar (...)
  • 24 According to some farming calendars, sorghum, various fruits, clarified butter, and poppy were prod (...)

27Miḫlāf was also frequently recorded as a supply origin in Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif. In general, Miḫlāf is a noun used in Yemen that is synonymous with “region” (Muğāwir: p. 169‑70; al‑Ḥağarī 1984 IV: p. 297; EI2 VII: p. 35 (Mikhlāf)). However, Miḫlāf in Yemeni historical materials is often thought to refer to Miḫlāf Ğa‘far, the region around Ibb (Mu‘ğam V: p. 106; Nūr I: p. 59 note 471; Varisco 1994: p. 307).23 The ingredients supplied here are very diverse, such as meats, cereals, lentil, walnuts, poppy, garlic, sesame oil, and so on. Although the strict production areas of most of them are unknown, it is easy to imagine that this region had high agricultural productivity.24 Incidentally, since Ğibla and Ğanad described above could be included in Miḫlāf Ğa‘far, the products supplied from these cities were also recorded, as their supply origin was Miḫlāf Ğa‘far.

28In the southern mountainous region, various place names around Ta‘izz were recorded as supply origins, and each city or region had its own characteristics.

3. ‘Adan

29‘Adan, which is located on the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, supplied products collected from the Indian Ocean to the court. In addition to the fragrances/spices carried from India and Southeast Asia, barābir sheep from East Africa, clarified butter from Egypt, and ceramics from China were also transported to the Rasūlid court via ‘Adan.

  • 25 Also see (Margariti 2007: p. 3367; Vallet 2010: p. 15663).
  • 26 Wheat, vegetables, and fruits that can be taken from the hinterland were transported to ‘Adan, whic (...)

30On the other hand, we have to pay attention to the fact that ‘Adan maintained a close network with the surrounding land.25For example, caraway, fennel, black caraway, hazelnuts, and pistachios were only supplied from ‘Adan. Although we cannot find these products in the catalogues of taxable goods in ‘Adan, they are mentioned in the farming calendars authored under the Rasūlids (Afḍal: p. 27; Varisco 1991: p. 18‑22). Therefore, we can assume these were produced in the hinterland of ‘Adan and supplied to the court via ‘Adan.26

31We can say that the economic sphere focusing on ‘Adan was active in the Rasūlid era. Its geographic range was not limited to only some cities in the hinterland of ‘Adan, but it also spreads to various parts of the Indian Ocean. Thus, various products produced in different natural environments were distributed to ‘Adan.

4. Northern mountainous area (Bilād al‑‘Ulyā)

  • 27 However, Ibn ‘Abd al‑Mağīd (d. 743/1343) also wrote an‘ā’ al‑Yaman, “Ṣan‘ā’ of al‑Yaman” (Bahğa: p (...)
  • 28 For example, al‑azrağī (d. 812/1410) says “from an‘ā’ to amār, then al‑Yaman and the land (manā(...)
  • 29 According to al‑usaynī, the geographic range of Bilād al‑‘Ulyā extends from the eastern part of a(...)

32The medieval historians who wrote the history of the Rasūlids clearly distinguished between the northern mountainous area (Bilād al‑‘Ulyā) and al‑Yaman (al‑Yaman al‑Aḫḍar) (cf. Simṭ: p. 118, 305, 342, 360, 418, 487, 530, 550, 555; Bahğa: p. 134, 137‑8; ‘Uqūd I: p. 79, 168).27 They called the Rasūlids’ home territory al‑Yaman and described the region where the Zaydī Imāms were dominant as Bilād al‑‘Ulyā (Masālik 1: p. 156, 165‑7; Smith 1978: p. 77‑80). The boundary between the two was in Ḏamār28 or Ḥaql Qatāb.29

  • 30 Ibn Baṭṭūa (d. 770/13689), who visited an‘ā’ in the 14th century, reported that there was a weal (...)

33In the table, Bilād al‑‘Ulyā was only mentioned as a supply origin once. However, when the Sulṭān moved to Ṣan‘ā’, the Rasūlid bureaucracy requested the supply of sheep be moved to the mountainous area around Ṣan‘ā’ and Ḏamār (Nūr II: p. 95‑6).Therefore, we cannot deem the agricultural productivity of this region as remarkably low.30 Under these circumstances, in terms of a reason the region was not listed as a supply origin in Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif, the following two points can be considered.

  1. This region is geographically remote from the home of the Sulṭān. For example, it took eight days to journey from Ṣan‘ā’ to Ta‘izz (al‑Ḥağarī 1984 II: p. 184), five days to journey to Ġalāfiqa (‘Umāra: p. 6), and six days to journey to al‑Mahğam (Taqwīm: p. 89).

    • 31 For example, see ‘Uqūd I: p. 168‑71.

    This region was unstable politically. During the 13th century, the Zaydī Imāms had extended their power in the northern mountainous area. Military clashes had repeated between the Rasūlids and the Zaydī Imāms and Ṣan‘ā’ was the site of war many times.31 It was impossible to relay the food supply to the court from this area in such situations.

  • 32 This is related to the fact that aramawt, which was embedded in the Rasūlids after Sulān al‑Mua (...)

34It could also be seen as evidence that the region around Ṣan‘ā’ was not an important supply origin of cooking ingredients for the Rasūlid court.32 In other words, the supply from Tihāma, the southern mountainous region and ‘Adan was enough to sustain the diet of the Rasūlid court.

Conclusion

35In this paper, we discussed the economic activities that took place in Yemen under the Rasūlids during the 13th century by analyzing the court cooking ingredients supplied, based on the new Arabic source Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif.

36First, we discussed cases based on the table in which the products with a specified place of supply origin were organized, and analyzed their supply origins and destinations. As a result, we made it clear that ‘Adan and Zabīd had worked as supply origins gathering various products in particular. As for the supply destinations, we showed that products without supply destinations were likely to be sent to Ta‘izz in the southern mountainous region.

37Then, we reviewed the characteristics of various areas in Yemen, particularly aspect of the supply origin for court cooking ingredients.

38The Rasūlids controlled the two areas where the natural environment is significantly different: Tihāma, the Red Sea Coast, and the southern mountainous region.

39In Tihāma, Zabīd and al‑Mahğam worked as an integrated land of various foods and tools in particular. In the southern mountainous region, each area around Ta‘izz had specialized activities.

40‘Adan, the important Indian Ocean port, also maintained a significant position as a supply origin. Though Yemen is isolated from the center of the Islamic world, it was able to acquire many products from ‘Adan through Indian Ocean trade. ‘Adan is known as a relay port of the Indian Ocean, while at the same time, under the Rasūlids’ rule, it also functioned as a nodal point linking Yemen with other regions.

41The northern mountainous region, which is far away from the home territory of the Rasūlids, was not seen as an important supply origin because of its geographical and political situation. However, this also means that the agricultural productivity of Tihāma and the southern mountainous area excelled and ‘Adan had a great ability to gather products needed by the Rasūlid court.

42We considered the characteristics of the various regions of Yemen during the 13th century based on the limited event, “the court cooking ingredients supplied.” In addition, the quantitative analysis used in this paper is arbitrary and could be reexamined, but the results of the analysis showed the non‑conventional aspects of Yemen and the Rasūlid court.

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Bibliographie

Primary Sources

Taqwīm: Abū al‑Fidā’, Taqwīm al‑Buldān, ed. M. Reinaud, Bayrūt, n.d.

Irtifā‘: anon., Irtifā‘ al‑Dawla al‑Mua’yyadiyya, ed. M. ‘A. Ğāzim, Ṣan‘ā’, 2008.

Nūr: anon., Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif fī Nuẓum wa‑Qawānīn wa‑A‘rāf al‑Yaman fī l‑‘Ahd al‑Muẓaffarī al‑Wārif, ed. M. ‘A. Ğāzim, 2 vols.,Ṣan‘ā’, 2003‑2005.

Ta’rīḫ: anon., Ta’rīḫ al‑Dawla al‑Rasūliyya fī al‑Yaman, ed. H. Yajima, Tokyo, 1976.

Ṭabsira: al‑Ašraf, Al‑Ṭabsira fī ‘Ilm al‑Nuğūm (Medieval Agriculture and Islamic Science: The Almanac of a Yemeni Sultan), ed. D. M. Varisco, Washington, 1994.

Hamdānī: al‑Hamdānī, Kitāb Ṣifat Ğazīrat al‑‘Arab (Islamic Geography, 88‑89), ed. D. H. Müller, 2 vols., Leiden, 1993.

Mulaḫḫaṣ: al‑Ḥusaynī, Mulaḫḫaṣ al‑Fiṭan (Medieval Administrative and Fiscal Treatise from the Yemen: The Rasulid Mulakhkhaṣ al‑Fiṭan by al‑Ḥasan b. ‘Alī al‑Ḥusaynī), ed. G. R. Smith, Oxford, 2006.

Bahğa: Ibn ‘Abd al‑Mağīd, Bahğat al‑Zaman fī Ta’rīḫ al‑Yaman, ed. ‘A. M. al‑Ḥibšī, Ṣan‘ā’, 1988.

Baṭṭūṭa: Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, Riḥlat Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, 5 vols., Bayrūt, 1992.

Simṭ: Ibn Ḥātim, Kitāb al‑Simṭ al‑Ġālī al‑Ṯaman fī Aḫbār al‑Mulūk min al‑Ġuzz bi‑l‑Yaman (The Ayyūbids and Early Rasūlids in the Yemen (567‑694/1173‑1295), 1), ed. G. R. Smith, London, 1974.

Muğāwir: Ibn al‑Muğāwir, Ṣifat Bilād al‑Yaman wa‑Makka wa‑Ba‘ḍ al‑Ḥiğāz al‑Musammāt Ta’rīḫ al‑Mustabṣir, ed. O. Löfgren, Leiden, 1951.

‘Uqūd: al‑Ḫazrağī, Al‑‘Uqūd al‑Lu’lu’iyya fī Ta’rīḫ al‑Dawla al‑Rasūliyya, ed. M. B. ‘Asal, 2 vols., Bayrūt, 1911‑1914, re.1983.

Ṣubḥ: al‑Qalqašandī, Kitāb Ṣubḥ al‑A‘šā fī Aḫbār al‑Inšā’, ed. M.Ḥ. Šams al‑Dīn, 14 vols., Bayrūt, 1913‑1919.

‘Umāra: ‘Umāra, Kitāb Ta’rīḫ al‑Yaman (Yaman: Its Early Mediaeval History), ed. H. C. Kay, Farnborough, 1892, re.1968.

Masālik 1: Ibn Faḍl Allāh al‑‘Umarī, Masālik al‑Abṣār fī Mamālik al‑Amṣār: Mamālik Miṣr wa‑al‑Šām wa‑al‑Ḥiğāz wa‑al‑Yaman, ed. A. F. Sayyid, al‑Qāhira, 1985.

Masālik 2: Ibn Faḍl Allāh al‑‘Umarī, Masālik al‑Abṣār fī Mamālik al‑Amṣār, 2, ed. F. Sezgin, Frankfurt‑am‑Main, 1988.

Mu‘ğam: al‑Yāqūt al‑Rūmī, Mu‘ğam al‑Buldān, ed. F.‘A. al‑Ğundī, 7 vols., Bayrūt, 1990.

Afḍal: The Manuscript of al‑Malik al‑Afḍal al‑‘Abbās b. ‘Alī b. Dā’ūd b. Yūsuf b. ‘Umar b. ‘Alī Ibn Rasūl: A Medieval Arabic Anthology from the Yemen, eds. D. M. Varisco and G. R. Smith, Warminster, 1998.

   

Secondary Materials

Baba, T., “An Analysis of the Supply Origin of Court Cooking Ingredients in Yemen under the Rasūlids during the 13th Century”, Annals of Japan Association for Middle East Studies, 27‑1 (2011), p. 1‑28 [in Japanese].

Ibid., “Cooking Ingredients of the Rasūlid Court during the 13th Century: Their Relation to the Indian Ocean Trade”, Bulletin of the Society for Western and Southern Asiatic Studies, 79 (2013), p. 40‑55 [in Japanese].

Al‑Fīfī, M. Y., Al‑Dawla al‑Rasūliyya fī l‑Yaman: Dirāsa fī Awḍā‘‑hā al‑Siyāsiyya wa‑l‑Ḥiḍāriyya 803‑827 h./1400‑1424 m., Bayrūt, 2005.

Al‑Ḥağarī, Mağmū‘ Buldān al‑Yaman wa‑Qabā’il‑hā, ed. Ibn‘Alī al‑Akwa‘, 4 vols. in 2 vols., Ṣan‘ā’, 1984.

Kuriyama, Y., Umi to Tomo ni Aru Rekishi: Yemen Kaijō Kōryūshi no Kenkyū, Tokyo, 2012 [in Japanese].

Margariti, R. E., Aden and the Indian Ocean Trade: 150 Years in the Life of a Medieval Arabian Port, North Carolina, 2007.

Al‑Munda‘ī, D. D., Al‑zirā‘a fī l‑Yaman fī ‘Aṣr l‑Dawla al‑Rasūliyya 626‑858/1229‑1454, Ğāmi‘a al‑Yarmūk, Jordan, 1992. (Master Thesis).

Serjeant, R. B., The Portuguese off the South Arabian Coast, Bayrūt, 1963 (re. 1974).

Ibid., “The Ports of Aden and Shihr (Medieval Period)”, Les Grandes Escales I. Recueils de la Société Jean Bodin, 32(1974), p. 207‑24.

Al‑Shamrookh, N. A., The Commerce and Trade of the Rasulids in the Yemen, 630‑858/1231‑1454, State of Kuwait, 1996.

Smith, G. R., “The Yemenite Settlement of Tha‘bāt: Historical, Numismatic and Epigraphic Notes”, Arabian Studies, 1(1974), p. 175‑88.

Ibid., The Ayyūbids and Early Rasūlids in the Yemen (567‑694/1173‑1295), 2 vols., London, 1978.

Ibid., “More on the Port Practices and Taxes of Medieval Aden”, New Arabian Studies, 3(1996), p. 208‑18.

Vallet, E., L’Arabie Marchande: État et Commerce sous les Sultans Rasūlides du Yémen (626‑858/1229‑1454), Paris, 2010.

Varisco, D. M., “A Royal Crop Register from Rasulid Yemen”, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 34(1991), p. 1‑22.

Ibid., Medieval Agriculture and Islamic Science: The Almanac of Yemeni Sultan, Washington, 1994.

Wada, I., “Kaiiki kara Mita Rekishi: Indo‑yō to Chichūkai wo Musubu Kōryūshi”, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 51‑3(2008), p. 516‑7.

Yajima, H., Kaiiki kara Mita Rekishi: Indo‑yō to Chichūkai wo Musubu Kōryūshi, Nagoya, 2006 [in Japanese].

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Notes

1 As we will show later, there are differences regarding the geographic range between “al‑Yaman” in historical records referring to the Rasūlid era and “Yemen (al‑Yaman),” which is generally used in modern times. In this paper, “al‑Yaman” refers to the limited extent seen in the Rasūlid sources, and “Yemen” means the approximate area of the Republic of Yemen.

2 Also see Wada 2008. Yajima has also published the annals of the Rasūlids (see Ta’rī).

3 About this book, see also Irtifā‘: p. ğīmād; Vallet 2010: p. 72‑5.

4 See also Nūr I: alifzāy; Nūr II: alifā’; Vallet 2010: p. 702; Baba 2013.

5 Ǧiha indicates the female of family of amīr and royalty (cf. Nūr I: p. 525 note 3817; Sim: p. 358; ‘Uqūd I: p. 265). They are educated by the eunuch and named attaching the name of the eunuch (Nūr I: p. 53940 note 3938). Regarding ‘Azīz al‑Dawla, the details are uncertain, but he might be a person belonging to the tribe Luqmān (Banū Luqmān) (al‑ajarī 1984 II: p. 682).

6  In these records, there are some articles referred to tar and feed that were used in the stable. But as the purpose of this paper focuses on the court cooking ingredients, we do not deal with them. As for tools used in the court kitchen, though we are able to infer the main raw material from the description, it is difficult to know their exact shape and use. Therefore, we just classified each product into seven groups by the type of raw materials or species and did not translate them into English with a few exceptions. In addition, with regard to sheep, wheat, and rice, as their small types are specified in many cases, we counted each of them as a separate item. And we removed products that were difficult to identify because of the problem in letters from the analysis.

7  About the place name, for example, I deemed both the “Ta‘izz” and “al‑A‘māl al‑Ta‘izziyya” as referring to the same area and wrote “Ta‘izz” in the table. I have also done the same for other places.

8 The catalogues of taxable goods in ‘Adan in this paper means following three materials: Nūr I: p. 40991; Muğāwir: p. 1403; Mulaḫḫa: 4ab, 17b26a​​.

9 For example, in the article where the supply origin of vegetables is stated, both the supply origin and supply destination are ‘Adan (Nūr II: p. 1920). We can therefore determine that these vegetables originated near the supply destination.

10 It should be noted that al‑usaynī (d. 9/15 C.) divided the various regions under the Rasūlids into three as follows: Northern mountainous area, southern mountainous area (al‑Yaman al‑Aḫḍar), and the coastal region (al‑tahā’im), and trading ports (al‑banādir wa‑al‑uġūr) (Mulaḫḫa: 13a‑17a).

11 In the table, there are 86 items listing ‘Adan as the supply destination. More specifically, 67 were sent directly to ‘Aden, and 19 were sent to ‘Adan via Ta‘izz. There are 28 items for which Ta‘izz was the supply destination. A total of 24 are conclusive case, while the other 4 are inconclusive. We did not count the 28 items in which foods were supplied via Ta‘izz.

12 For example, see (Nūr II: p. 934). This is the article that al‑Malik al‑Wāiq Ibrāhīm (d. 711/1311) arranged cooking and foods for his father Sulān al‑Malik al‑Muaffar when he stayed at Zabīd.

13 See also Nūr I: p. 1867, 265, 26770, 2889, 33640, 349, 356, 358; Serjeant 1963: p. 13856; Varisco 1994: p. 1645; al‑Shamrookh 1996: p. 285304; Margariti 2007: p. 128; Vallet 2010: p. 8367.

14 Along with the development of Zabīd and Ta‘izz under the Rasūlids, the Makka pilgrimage road, which starts from or goes through these cities, began to be used well (Masālik 2: p. 330, 341‑2). In 742/1342, Sulān al‑Malik al‑Muğāhid made a pilgrimage to Makka (‘Uqūd II: p. 65‑6, 68‑9). He departed Ta‘izz and reached Makka via Zabīd and al‑Mahğam. In return, he also went through Tihāma road. He did not use the northern mountain road via an‘ā’ because the political instability in the region may have affected it, as described later. Ibn Fal Allāh al‑Umarī (d. 749/1349) said, “With respect to Yemen road (al‑Yamanī), manypilgrims from al‑Yaman use the sea route. A few of them who made the pilgrimage went through on the land” (Masālik 2: p. 330). This description indicates that shipping at the time of the pilgrimage to Mecca from Yemen became even more important (Nūr I: p. 107‑8; al‑Shamrookh 1996: p. 219‑27).

15 It should be noted that when it comes to date palms, Makkī dates were only from al‑Mahğam, and i’l dates were only from Zabīd in Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif (Nūr I: p. 542, 547; Nūr II: p. 67, 12, 19).

16 Sulān al‑Malik al‑Muaffar held al‑Mahğam as iqā‘ before he assumed the throne (Uqūd I: p. 87). In addition, in Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif, the festival was celebrated in al‑Mahğam (Nūr II: p. 134). Even the casting of money was still frequently carried out in al‑Mahğam from the reign of Sulān al‑Malik al‑Muaffar to the reign of Sulān al‑Malik al‑Nāir Amad (r. 803/1400827/1424) (Vallet 2010: p. 3416).

17 Seafood arriving in the Red Sea Coast was also transported to al‑Mahğam (Muğāwir: p. 91).

18 Also see note 7.

19 Al‑Quayba is a fertile agricultural area located in the north of Ta‘izz. Quaybī wheat is from here (Varisco 1994: p. 308; Nūr I: p. 527 note 3840).

20 The grains produced around Ta‘izz were collected in the granary of citadel Ta‘izz (ahrā’ in Ta‘izz) (Nūr I: p. 527). As ‘usqī honey was only supplied from Ta‘izz, this is a specialty from the periphery of Ta‘izz (Nūr II: p. 56, 12). In addition, there was al‑Dumluwa, which was called the “treasury of the princes of al‑Yaman” (Nūr I: p. 529‑31; Nūr, II: p. 5; Mu‘ğam II: p. 535; Taqwīm: p. 90‑1; ub V: p. 12), and al‑Sawā produced sheep and goats (Nūr II: p. 81‑2; Mu‘ğam III: p. 307).

21 Sugar has also been produced in Zabīd and al‑Mahğam (Nūr II: p. 105‑6). However, it was rarely supplied to the court (Nūr I: p. 552).

22 According to an article by Ibn al‑Muğāwir, between Ğanad‑Ta‘izz was 1 farsa (Muğāwir: p. 161).

23 Milāf is also treated as the name of a city in Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif. For example, in the list of military expenses on trips, Milāf is listed along with Ta‘izz and Ğanad (Nūr I: p. 58, 74).

24 According to some farming calendars, sorghum, various fruits, clarified butter, and poppy were produced in this region (absira: p. 44, 58; Afal: p. 519).

25 Also see (Margariti 2007: p. 3367; Vallet 2010: p. 15663).

26 Wheat, vegetables, and fruits that can be taken from the hinterland were transported to ‘Adan, which was poor in agricultural productivity (Afal: p. 27; Varisco 1991: p. 1822). Nūr I: p. 3801, suggests that a transport route of fruits such as quince and pomegranate (al‑safarğal) existed between ‘Adan and Ta‘izz.

27 However, Ibn ‘Abd al‑Mağīd (d. 743/1343) also wrote an‘ā’ al‑Yaman, “Ṣan‘ā’ of al‑Yaman” (Bahğa: p. 64).

28 For example, al‑azrağī (d. 812/1410) says “from an‘ā’ to amār, then al‑Yaman and the land (manāiba) of Sulān” (‘Uqūd I: p. 168‑71).

29 According to al‑usaynī, the geographic range of Bilād al‑‘Ulyā extends from the eastern part of aramawt to Bilād al‑awīla and Šaraf Qilā in the west longitudinally and from aql Qaāb to Bīša latitudinally (Mulaḫḫa: 6a, 13a).

30 Ibn Baṭṭūa (d. 770/13689), who visited an‘ā’ in the 14th century, reported that there was a wealth of grain and fruit trees in an‘ā’ (Baṭṭūa II: p. 111). Various cereals were produced in an‘ā’, and raisins were produced in a‘da, which was located north of an‘ā’ (Nūr I: p. 243‑4, 249; Taqwīm: p. 95).

31 For example, see ‘Uqūd I: p. 168‑71.

32 This is related to the fact that aramawt, which was embedded in the Rasūlids after Sulān al‑Muaffar’s expedition in 678/1280, is not listed as a supply origin in Nūr al‑Ma‘ārif. Even if the ingredients in these areas were carried to the court, as they were imported at ports like ‘Adan and Ġalāfiqa exclusively through sea routes, they would not appear in the source.

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Table des illustrations

Titre Map: Yemen region (7/13 C.) based on [Cornu 1985: Carte VIII. Circonscription du Yémen ; Vallet 2010 : p. 744]
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Référence électronique

Tamon Baba, « Yemen under the Rasūlids during the 13th Century », Chroniques du manuscrit au Yémen [En ligne], 17 | 2014, mis en ligne le 15 mars 2014, consulté le 21 août 2017. URL : http://cmy.revues.org/2041 ; DOI : 10.4000/cmy.2041

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Auteur

Tamon Baba

Ph.D Student, Kyushu University, Japan

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Droits d’auteur

Chroniques du manuscrit au Yémen

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